indian food


How healthy is Indian food - Quick guide

India is a diverse land, whether it is the culture of the place, its food, or its people. Every corner of India has a surprise to offer. Indian culture gives a lot of importance to its food. Not to mention, the foods reek of its culture. 

Asking if Indian food is healthy is an essential question as Indian cuisines became famous around the world because of its fragrant spices and flavors. Apart from its flavor, it also has all the essential nutrients in a balanced quantity. If you love a bit of spice in your food, then Indian food must be your go-to food.

What is Indian food known for?

Indian food is hailed as one of the most wholesome foods around the world. Traditional Indian food is healthy. Although many travelers who travel to India complain that Indian food has a lot of oil and sugar, that contributes to its benefits. 

Indian food is known for its several benefits, such as boosting immunity, keeping away inflammation, serving brain function, and more.

Indian food is rich in legumes, grains, fruits, and beans. All these vegetables in Indian foods contribute to balanced fiber, carbohydrates, fat, vitamins, and minerals.

India has always been considered to be a vegetarian nation, but times are changing. A traditional Indian diet will bestow you with all the benefits you’re looking for.

Is North Indian food healthy?

When you travel to India, make sure to visit one of the most beautiful corners of the country, North India. Let’s not demean the fact that the entire country is beautiful, but North India has a touch.

North Indian food mostly consists of non-vegetarian dishes. If you are health conscious and want to consume only healthy dishes, you can visit the best hotel around you.

The North Indian cuisine consists of dishes like butter chicken, lassi, tikka masala, paneer masala, chole bhature, and so much more.

Most of the North Indian cuisine has a touch of Mughal and Pashto dishes with lots of butter, ghee, gravy dishes, chickpeas, rajma, etc. If you are health conscious, you may prefer to avoid North Indian food.

But, the catch here is despite the presence of ghee, butter, and so much spice in your food, North Indian food is actually healthy. However, you must consume North Indian food in limited amounts. If you can’t stand spice and oil, you should avoid the consumption of North Indian dishes.

Is South Indian food healthy?

Compared to North Indian cuisine, South Indian food is much healthier. South Indian staple dishes mostly consist of rice, idli, and dosa, rich in carbohydrates. Moreover, the gravy dishes are also made of vegetables and fruits, thereby contributing to a high health quotient. 

Most South Indian foods are fermented, which is why they prove beneficial for gut microbiota. The South Indian dishes are fermented, which improves digestion, boosts the immune system, and enhances vitamin B opportunities in the body. Furthermore, dishes like uttapam, dosa, and idli are rich in probiotics, thereby being beneficial for gut bacteria.

Is Homemade Indian food healthy?

According to Indian culture, homemade Indian food is extremely healthy. And it’s true. Whether you eat vegan, vegetarian, or non-vegetarian home-cooked Indian foods, you should know that each of them is equally beneficial. This is mostly because a lot of things are taken into consideration for home-cooked foods. 

Hygiene is one of the most important factors for homemade Indian foods. The condition of a home’s kitchen is far better than that of the restaurant’s kitchen. Moreover, one can be sure about the quality of the food as well. Home-cooked meals are always made up of using fresh vegetables, and you aren’t served stale dishes. Hence, when you travel to India, you should try homemade foods, rather than buy ones.

Is vegetarian Indian food healthy?

Absolutely yes. 

Many people in India are non-veg, but a lot of them are vegetarians too. One of the greatest pros of consuming vegetarian Indian food is that it is healthier than non-vegetarian food items.

Vegetarian Indian food is healthier than non-veg Indian food because of fewer spices. Consuming vegetarian Indian food will make you feel light.

Daal or pulse is a staple vegetarian Indian dish. Daal alone can make you feel full because of its nutrients. It contains fewer spices that help lower migraine pain and boost the body’s vitamin and mineral content. Moreover, not a lot of oil is used in cooking vegetarian Indian food, which contributes to low cholesterol levels.

Is Indian vegan food healthy?

Indian food is considered to be healthy, but it completely depends on what it is made of. Indian vegan food is healthy because it is made up of natural fats and foods. A lot of Indian vegan food is delicious. The Indian vegan curries are made up of lentils and beans, which are rich in proteins. Furthermore, these consist of other nutritious vegetables as well. It contains herbs and spices as well.

Following an Indian vegan diet can be pretty helpful in the long run. Although making the shift is not easy, it can play an important role in bestowing all health benefits. Indian vegan food is made mostly of plant-based, which is why it is highly nutritious. It is rich in vitamins and minerals like calcium, vitamin D, sodium, and more, so it is considered healthy.

how to make indian food healthy

Is Indian takeaway food healthy?

Not really. 

As far as takeaway foods are concerned, it would help if you considered the environment in which these Indian takeaway foods are made. However, Indian takeaway food is rich in butter and oil, so it may not be friendly for the heart.

Tandoori dishes are healthy, but only if you grill rather than frying it, and also if you cut down on calories and saturated fats, these dishes can prove beneficial in the long run.

Is Frozen Indian Food healthy?

Frozen Indian food is unhealthy. But compared to restaurant foods, these frozen foods tend to be much healthier as you make them in your house. The frozen Indian foods are made up of emulsifiers, flavoring agents, and preservatives, so it is necessary to consider these properly. This helps to increase the shelf life of the product and enhance the taste in the long run.

You can keep track of all the nutritional value of frozen Indian foods mentioned in the packaging itself. Once you know what the food contains, you’ll be able to decide whether it is healthy for you or not.

Is Indian cooking food healthy?

Cooked Indian food is healthy. Indian food is rich in spices and flavors, which helps to enhance the taste of the dish. However, due to high sugar and carbohydrate content, Indian food is often considered unhealthy because of the high cholesterol content.

Indian food is cooked using grains and pulses, so it contributes to all the healthy profiles. Rice, pulses, and roti are stapled Indian dishes. These combinations are rich in protein and amino acids.

Is Indian restaurant food healthy?

Indian restaurant foods are not healthy because of unhygienic conditions. Many people have complained about the unhygienic conditions of Indian restaurants. However, these restaurants are now working towards improving the condition of their food and kitchen.

But at the same time, it is also necessary to bring down spice content. Indian restaurant foods can be healthy as long as all the factors are taken into consideration.

Health Benefits of Indian traditional food

Indian cuisine is popular mostly because of spices, rice, and dal. These play an important role in adding extra flavor and colors, which eventually makes the cuisine east. The typical components of an Indian traditional diet include

  • Variety of herbs and spices
  • Wide variety of fruits and vegetables
  • Rich in fiber
  • Low in saturated fat

All the foods in an Indian diet contribute to a wide range of benefits. Satisfying the appetite is important, but it is also necessary to check the calorie count. Fried, heavy and fast foods aren’t essential, but Indian cuisine is rich in green vegetables and fresh fruits, which is considered beneficial.

A traditional Indian diet also contains yogurts, which make the gut healthy. A traditional Indian diet also contains essential elements like garlic, turmeric, and chili, healing characteristics.

Turmeric in Indian dishes protects against prostate diseases, heart health and also reduces the chance of diabetes. Consuming a diet rich in turmeric also helps to protect against impotence. Ginger in Indian dishes also helps against nausea and digestion.

The garlic in Indian dishes is beneficial for the heart and improves the immune system and metabolism.

Indian dishes, when consumed in limited amounts, will not only satisfy your taste buds and contribute to all the health benefits.

Top 10 healthiest Indian dishes

Indian cuisine is not only healthy but also provides a lot of benefits. Indian food is made up of all healthy spices that can help make the difference if cooked correctly. Indian food consists of all essential nutrients like fats, carbohydrates, and other elements contributing to the benefits. Some of the healthy Indian dishes to try include the following:

1. Buttermilk

It may come as buttermilk is rich in fats; it is not. Buttermilk doesn’t contain butter and is low in fats.

2. Rajma

This staple North Indian dish, Rajma, is made up of red kidney beans and served with roti and rice.

3. Sambar dal

This is a delicious stew made of spices, chickpeas, and legumes.

4. Bhindi ki sabzi

This one delicious dish made of ladyfingers can enhance the taste of your meal in one go.

5. Tandoori chicken

Chicken is marinated in yogurt and seasoned with tandoori masala, made up as a combination of different spices.

6. Aloo palak

A combination of mashed potatoes, chopped spinach, and leafy vegetables.

7. Baigan bhaji

Made of roasted brinjals, this is one of the healthiest Indian vegetables you can relish.

8. Chicken dhansak

This traditional Indian Parsi dish is served with kachumbar salad and brown rice.

9. Poha

Poha is made using pressed rice and seasoned with nuts and vegetables. It is light and super healthy Indian vegetarian food.

10. Dhokla

This famous Gujarati dish is one of the tastiest and healthiest you can try. It makes up for an excellent snack and breakfast.

Top 10 worst Indian dishes for your health

Indian dishes are healthy, but some of them can be very unhealthy. Some of the unhealthy Indian dishes for your health include the following:

1. Bhelpuri

Bhelpuri is delicious and a savory snack. But if you’re health-conscious, you should prefer avoiding it.

2. Pulao

Pulao is made using rice, bulgur, cracked wheat, and couscous, but it’s not beneficial. It is combined with dried fruits, vegetables, and meat. But you may want to avoid pulao because it’s not healthy.

3. Chutney

No food in India is ever complete without chutney. But, not every chutney is healthy. If you are health conscious and have health issues, you should avoid the consumption of chutney.

4. Rohan Josh

This is an extremely delicious Indian dish, but it shouldn’t be your first choice if you have health concerns, especially cardiovascular issues.

5. Nihari

Nihari is usually made of beef shanks, mutton, or chicken. It is made up of several spices, which is why you may want to avoid it if you have digestive issues.

6. Naan

Naan is super unhealthy. These are soft flatbreads with low nutritional value because they are made of less healthy ingredients such as sugar, oil, and white flour.

7. Pakoras

Everyone loves pakoras, but these aren’t healthy at all. Rather than ordering one, you should prefer making one at your home using chickpea flour.

8. Saag paneer

Indian cheese is made of either clarified butter or ghee to make the texture velvety. Instead of paneer, you can make a healthier version at home using tofu.

9. Samosas

We love samosas but let’s just admit that it is one of the unhealthiest Indian cuisines. Samoas do find its name in the list as a staple food for Indian holidays and festivals.

Chicken Tikka Masala

Is Tikka masala healthy? No. It is made up of high fat and heavy cream. So, you may want to avoid it.

Is Indian food good for weight loss?

Whether or not Indian food is good for weight loss completely depends on what you’re consuming. Several Indian dishes can help in the weight loss process. A dietician can help you in formulating the weight loss diet.

However, when you prepare a weight loss diet plan, you should prefer sticking to it. A good diet combined with a healthy lifestyle can help you lose weight in no time.

Indian food can be good for weight loss, but it completely depends on what you’re eating. Some Indian foods contain heavy fat, which is why you may want to avoid it. But, certain Indian foods may help you in the weight loss process. Some of these weight loss-friendly foods include the following:

  • Walnuts
  • Moong Daal
  • Bitter gourd
  • Almonds
  • Apple
  • Cauliflower
  • Beans
  • Garlic
  • Turmeric
  • Radish
  • Bananas
  • Lentils

Is Indian food healthy for diabetics?

Indian foods aren’t that rich in sugar, so it is considered healthy for diabetes. If you’re a diabetic person, you should consume certain foods to help you in the long run. You may also reach out to a healthcare professional who can help you formulate a diabetes-friendly diet chart. If you have diabetes, some of the healthy Indian foods you can consume are the following.

  • Cinnamon
  • Fatty fish
  • Leafy green vegetables
  • Flaxseeds
  • Nuts
  • Chia seeds
  • Greek yogurt
  • Garlic
  • Strawberries

Is Indian food is healthy for the heart?

Having a heart-healthy diet can help to lower the risk of stroke and heart attack. According to the eating patterns, the diet is affluent in fruits, whole grains, raw and unsalted salts, beans, lentils, and vegetables.

The combination of all these can play an important role in contributing to overall heart health. Indian dishes are rich in nuts and legumes and low-fat dairy products, which is why they are helpful for overall health.

Is Indian food healthy for pregnancy?

Indian food, when consumed in limited amounts and with proper accuracy, can play an important role in boosting health during pregnancy. Some of the Indian foods that are good during pregnancy include the following.

  • Vegetable omelet
  • Bowl of fruits
  • Wheat Rava upma and vegetables
  • Oats porridge
  • Mixed bean cutlet and patties
  • Paranthas are made of spinach, dal, carrots, beans, and paneer fillings.
  • Poha
  • Whole-wheat toast

What is the healthiest Indian food to order in a restaurant?

Are you heading towards an Indian restaurant? Well, you may be confused about what Indian cuisines to order that can be beneficial for your body. If you’re confused, let us guide you through. Some of the healthiest Indian foods that you can order in a restaurant include the following.


Whether chicken, vegetable, or fish- tandoori in any form can provide you with benefits. Tandoori dishes are great because they are flavourful and juicy. Tandoor dishes are actually helpful for fighting off cold.

Chicken Tikka Masala

This lip-smacking dish looks more like a soup and can explode in your mouth like a bomb of flavors. Oh, if you’re looking forward to a healthier option, you should grill the chicken instead of frying and skip the heavy sauce and cream.

Chana masala

Chana masala is traditionally made of chickpeas and is extremely beneficial. It is rich in proteins and fiber and also a good source of folate and manganese.


Raita is one of those sweet traditional yogurt-based dishes. Raita is made with cucumber, onion, and yogurt combination.


Never miss out on ordering dal at a restaurant. This is the best Indian dish you can have.

Other dishes that you can have include:

  • Baigan bharta
  • Roti
  • Lamb kebab and vegetables

How to cook Indian food healthy?

When you’re cooking Indian food at home, you need to be careful. You should avoid putting in too many spices and salt. Turmeric is also one great spice but quantity matters. An excess of everything can be dangerous, which is why you may want to avoid it. You should also keep a check of the ingredients you are adding to your dish. Indian food healthiness vs. other cuisines or dishes

Is Indian food healthier than fast food?

Indian foods are far healthier than fast foods. Indian foods are made of a limited amount of spices and oil. On the other hand, fast foods are made in extremely unhygienic conditions and contain much oil. As a result, you may want to avoid fast food. Whenever given a choice, you should choose Indian food over fast food.

Is Indian food healthier than American food?

Most American food is boiled, while Indian food is either fried, grilled, or boiled. However, Indian food is healthier than American food. The Indian diet is a perfectly balanced diet consisting of the right amount of carbohydrates, oils, pulses, fats, and vegetables. On the other hand, the American diet emphasizes processed foods, patties, meats, and more, which can harm your health.

Is Indian food healthier than pizza?

It depends on what Indian dish you choose to eat. If you choose an Indian food rich in spices and fattening items compared to pizzas,  one meal of Indian curry contains fatter than the daily recommended value. As a result, pizza is healthier than this specific Indian dish. But if you choose cooked vegetables and rice, no doubt it’s healthier than Pizza. 

Is Indian food healthier than McDonald's?

Yes. Although Indian food consists of all essential spices, it is healthier than McDonald’s. This is mostly because most McDonalds foods are processed, deep-fried and grilled. But Indian food consists of all essential spices which tend to boost immunity.

Is Indian food healthier than Japanese food?


Japanese food is mostly boiled, which contributes to enhancing the health impacts. Furthermore, unlike Indian food, Japanese food isn’t rich in spices, which has all the health benefits.

is south indian food healthy


Indian food is wholesome, nourishing, and healthy. Through a foreigner’s eye, India’s food may appear extremely spicy and unhealthy, but it is not. Several healthy Indian food vegetarians contribute to health benefits.

You should consume these Indian dishes in a limited amount to avoid any unnecessary impact. Furthermore, if you cook Indian food in your house, you should consider the spices and ingredients you add to enhance health.

Indian Cuisine Overview

A perfect blend of herbs and spices, with a varied range of grains, vegetables, and meats, sets Indian cuisine a precedent for the foodies from the remote reaches of the world.

As it’s said the cultural diversity of India changes with every 100-mile geographical shift, same is the case with cuisines that induce its influence from every wide gap in climate, people, and their combined effect on the way of treating locally found sources of nutrition.

With a broad history that carries its printed proof since the 16th century of the Mughals arrival and then fusion with overseas trade through the 21st century, narrates the nobility of architecting Indian cuisine to its optimum current state.

If we overlook the damage it bore from the extensive immigration, colonial periods, and Islamic ruler invasions, the Indian subcontinent has gained a vast influence in its cuisine configuration, that makes it tempting and fanciful for the food lovers, worldwide.

As the world witnessed a massive flow of globalization throughout distinct human cravings, Indian cuisine, too, got paint in its widespread force, exchanging cuisine pertinent information with rest of the world, to grease the pathway toward a trend of international cuisines’ food joints.

Every part of a nation has its own set of methods for cooking foods. Wrapping the worldwide available cuisine style in one landmass, India serves a variety of dishes that are too local in either Australia or Brazil or the US, making its cuisine versatile in every possible way.

Misconceptions busted about Indian Food

It’s a common misbelief rooted in the mindset of foreigners that make them dislike Indian food for any reason. But, as a traveler and food enthusiast, you need to bust the myths, to enjoy the finger-licking food experience offered by this land of a billion people.

Indian Food is too hot to consume

Most people prefer another cuisine over Indian because they inherit the widely spread misconception that it’s intolerable to bear the heat of Indian food.

Indian food culture
hot chili peppers – You can give it up…

But, in reality, the level of chilly choice is totally up to the customer, and one can adjust the taste preorder. Indians use spices like cinnamon, cardamom, and turmeric to keep food-borne bacteria at bay from order and nutrients spoilage.

Indian Food breaks your dieting routine

Not true at all and makes little sense when we’re dealing with a landmass covering a total geographical area of 1,269,299 sq miles. Whereas some food carries rich, luscious, and anti-dieting ingredients, some are extremely light and rich in fiber and protein.

In fact, thanks to the fusion of spices, Indian food can be a fabulous choice for dieters, for its flavorsome taste.

Indian food makes you ‘Gassy’

The cause of gas differs from person to person. For some, it could be trying a huge variety of distinct foods, while for others it could be dairy products or cruciferous vegetables.

In Indian foods, lentils and chickpeas are mostly blamed for the formation of gas, but it’s totally up to a body how it reacts and adjusts. The matter of the fact is “not all Indian food imparts gas.”

Indians restaurants don’t serve beef

Beef and pork are forbidden for Hindus and Muslims, respectively. In India, the cow is considered a sacred animal, and it is haram to eat pork by Muslims, as stated in their Quran.

Indian cuisine
Cows in India

If you try restaurants overseas, like in Australia, Indian cuisines readily serve beef. On a side note, McDonald’s has a customized menu for Indian customers, as they try to keep beef out of Indian sight.

Top spices widely used in Indian dishes

What makes Indian food so special in taste is a unique blend of spices. It’s hard to cook the way they do in Indian cuisines, but if you know the key spices they use, you can accomplish the same tantalizing aromas, vibrant colors; and spicy, sweet, and tangy flavors that the Indian foods are mostly known for.

The key to generating exact features, as served in restaurants and Indian homes, is to utilize the mix of spices in an appropriate proportion. To bring out the right flavor, bloom them in oil, butter, or ghee. These spices act not only as a cooking ingredient but also supplements your health benefit. Check out the top spices:


For any sort of curry creation, in India, cumin is extensively used as a strong, aromatic spice. It’s available as either seeds or toasted. Because of its sharp taste and flavor, it’s sometimes characterized as warm, earthy, and bitter.

Indian cuisine Cumin
The most basic spicy in the Indian cuisine


It’s described by many people as nutty and fruity. Coriander features in Indian cuisine as a spice and garnishing material. Coriander is the key component in Garam masala, which is the key ingredient to spice up the taste of any dish and soothe an upset stomach.

Indian cuisine Coriander
Coriander, rather you like it or hate it


With its homeland in India, ginger is now found in Fiji, Australia, Jamaica, and Indonesia. Gingers are known for generating a delicious and peppery flavor in recipes. The spicy and zesty taste of ginger accounts for its use in stir-fries, baked goods, vegetables, and beverages.

Indian food spices
Ginger, a great refreshing taste addition for any dish 

Mustard Seeds

It can be found in many colors, such as black, brown, and yellow. Mustard seeds get the right flavor when they’re crushed, or cooked in oil. Mustard oil is produced from mustard seeds and is commonly found and used in India. The smoky and nutty flavor of mustard seeds enhance the taste of curries.

Indian cuisine Mustard seeds
Mustard seeds


Whereas in one hand there is a vast health benefit associated with the application of turmeric, it imparts a yellowish color and flavor as its feature to a mix of spices and curries on the other hand. It’s a close relative of ginger and is widely known for its anti-inflammatory properties.

Indian food Turmeric
Turmeric, adding color and rich taste any Indian dish

Garam masala

A blend of spices—like coriander, cumin, cloves, nutmeg, cinnamon, cardamom, and nutmeg—constitute the garam masala. Acting as a staple for Indian cuisine, garam masala serves the same purpose as de Provence in French cuisine. It’s sensitive to heat and, therefore, is sprinkled at the last moment when the recipe gets almost done.

Indian cuisine Garam Masala
One of the most iconic Indian spices

Black Pepper

Black pepper is primarily native to India. As there need many natural cycles and a fixed amount of rainfall for its production, it takes intense labor work to grow. For the ultimate release of its taste, black pepper needs toasting before blending. It can also be used as the salad dressing, with salt.

South Indian cuisine black pepper
Black Pepper, sharpen the tastes

Nutmeg and mace

Once the outer covering of nutmeg gets cracked off, mace becomes ready for grating. When it turns dry, it gains a golden-orange tint and adds a hint of warm flavor. Like other spices, nutmeg doesn’t require toasting before blending into spices. Doing so would spoil its flavor.

Indian food Nutmeg
Nutmeg spicy

Top delicious Indian dishes, made for satisfying your appetite

Sarso ka Saag and Makki ki Roti

Sarson Ka Saag and Makki ki Roti complete each other and are inseparable for a fused taste and finger-licking appetite achievement. It’s popular almost in all northern states, with Rajasthan and Punjab as the original state where a true sense of its importance is shared traditionally. To profuse the lust of mouth, white butter, jaggery, or honey work as the best accompaniment.

Indian cuisine Sarso ka Saag and Makki ki Roti
Sarso ka Saag and Makki ki Roti

Time: 2 hours | Calorie: 90 per roti and 150 per saag serving

Key Ingredients needed for Saag


  • 750-gram Sarson Saag
  • 250-gram Palak Saag
  • 250-gram Bathua Saag


  • 4 Green chilly
  • 25 gram Ginger
  • 2 Onions
  • 6 cloves Garlic
  • 1/2 tsp Red pepper powder
  • 1/2 tsp Garam masala
  • 1/2 tsp Coriander powder

Other Essentials

  • 100 gram Ghee
  • 1 1/2 cup Makki atta
  • 2 cups water
  • Salt as per taste

Step-by-step cooking guide

  • Mix three saags—bathua, palak, and sarson—with salt and water, and cook them in a pressure cooker at low flame for one and half an hour.
  • Squeeze saag to separate saag water. Mash the water-free saag until coarsely ground. Add makki atta and stir the blend.
  • Remix the filtered saag water, along with a little drinkable water, and start cooking again over a low flame.
  • Add finely chopped green chilies and ginger, and let the heat do its work.
  • Turn off the flame once saag gets a thick texture.
  • On the second burner, to prepare tadka, pour some oil in a frying pan and add finely chopped onions, ginger, and garlic.
  • At about 2 minutes, add red pepper powder, garam masala, and dhania.
  • Saute until onions get light brown.
  • Mix the tadka and ghee/butter with saag.

Key ingredients for Makki ki Roti

  • ½ kg makki flour
  • Water
  • Ghee
  • ½ teaspoon salt
  • 1 pinch red chili powder

Step-by-step guide

  • Mix all the ingredients—makki flour, red chili powder, ghee, and salt—nicely.
  • Add lukewarm water in the maize flour and knead softly with hands, to prepare a soft dough.
  • Using an equal portion of dough, build medium-sized balls.
  • To prepare roti, use extra flour to flatten it into a round shape, on a chakla or a plane surface.
  • Put the round-shaped roti on the frying pan, and cook until golden water.
  • Use ghee to soften the roti.

Pav Bhaji

Indian food recipe Pav Bhaji

Evolving from Maharashtra, Pav Bhaji has become one of the most popular vegetarian recipes of India, as it requires minimal time and efforts to cook and taste the best, which all food lovers readily relate their choice with. This delicious recipe is full of spices and veggies, which make it full of nutrients and popular regardless of age and gender. All it takes, in extra, for completing a mouth full serve is pav (bun bread) and mint chutney.

Pav Bhaji Time: 40 minutes | Calories: 600 per plate with 2 pav

Key ingredients needed for Pav Bhaji


  • 4 mashed, boiled potato
  • 2 chopped onion
  • 1/2 chopped cauliflower
  • 1 cup shelled peas
  • 1/4 cup green beans
  • Chopped carrot
  • 4 chopped tomato
  • 1 de-seeded capsicum
  • Coriander leaves (for garnishing)

Other Essentials:

  • 3 tablespoon refined oil
  • salt as per taste
  • 30 gm melted butter
  • 1 medium lemon wedges
  • 8 pavs


  • 2 teaspoon garlic paste
  • 1/2 tablespoon ginger paste
  • 2 chopped green chili
  • 2 teaspoon pav bhaji masala

Step-by-step Guide

  • Boil the veggies—carrots, beans, cauliflower, and peas—in a pressure cooker. Drain the water and mash coarsely.
  • Fry three-fourths of onions in a pan, using oil and saute until it gains a golden glimpse. Further, pour ginger-garlic and green chilies paste and fry for a minute.
  • Sprinkle pav bhaji masala, capsicum, and then, fry for an additional minute.
  • Add finely chopped tomatoes and salt. Turn the stove knob to medium and keep stirring until oil separates from the masala.
  • Add mashed potatoes, cauliflower, mashed peas, and 2 cups of water. Simmer it for about 10 minutes. Keep pressing it with the back of the spoon, to mash the mixture properly.
  • Garnish bhaji with remaining onions, lemon wedges, butter, and coriander leaves.
  • Crisping pav: Slice each pav horizontally into two. Put about 15 grams of butter in a pan. Fry pavs to make it crispy.

Chicken Biryani

Indian food recipe Chicken Biryani
Chicken Biryani (Credit: Shehal at English Wikipedia)

Chicken biryani, a pairing of chicken and rice, has permeated the culinary Indian culture, to stretch its aroma around the world. It’s a mouth-watering savory dish packed with spicy marinated chicken, flavored saffron rice, and caramelized onions.

It’s an intensely aromatic and well-seasoned dish, incorporating veggies, rice, and chicken in such perfect balance that provokes the taste buds of any food lover to extremities. It’s easy to cook, consumes less cooking time than expected, and serves high calorie.

Time to cook: 1 hr | Calorie: 520 per 365 grams

Key ingredients needed for chicken biryani:

Prime Essentials:

  • 650 grams rice
  • 1 Kg meat


  • 1 Tbsp red chili paste
  • ½ Tbsp green chili paste
  • 1 Tbsp ginger garlic paste
  • ½ Tbsp cardamom powder
  • 1 Tbsp cumin seeds
  • 3-4 pieces cinnamon
  • 4 Cloves

Other essentials:

  • ½ cup oil
  • 1 tablespoon salt
  • 250 grams curd
  • 4 Tbsp butter
  • 2 Tbsp lemon juice
  • ½ cup water
  • 1 Tbsp saffron

Garnishing ingredients

  • Finely sliced cucumbers
  • Sliced carrots
  • 2 boiled eggs
  • Mint leaves

Step-by-step guide

  • How to marinate the chicken? Put vegetable oil, chili peppers, mint, cinnamon, salt, garlic paste, garam masala, ginger, and chicken pieces in a big bowl and stir till all mix well. Use your hand to coat the chicken thoroughly in the marinade, and leave it untouched for an hour.
  • How to caramelize onions? Use ghee or vegetable oil to caramelize onions. Put the flame on low and stir it for 10-15 minutes. Once it gets a brownish appearance, transfer the onions to a separate bowl and allow cooling.
  • Soak the rice in lukewarm water and then, wash it in cold water until the water runs clear.
  • Put water, cardamom, cumin, bay leaf, and rice in a separate bowl, and par-boil them for 7 minutes. Drain the rest of the water from the rice, keeping reserve about 1 cup.
  • In a separate bowl, put the chicken in a single layer and use some oil or ghee to fry each side for about 5 minutes. Once both sides gain a golden brown color, transfer the chicken to the bowl you used for marination.
  • Add saffron to the rice and mix it evenly. Put half of the rice in the bowl used for frying chicken. Place all the chicken onto the rice, forming an even layer. Pour three-fourths of the rice on top of the chicken and then, put caramelized onions on the very top. Top onions with the remaining rice, forming an even layer all around.
  • Pour the reserved liquid obtained from boiling the rice. Seal pack the pot with the lead using dough created from wheat flour and put the pot on the stove over medium flame for about half an hour.
  • Once you watch steam leaking from cracks developed in between the lid and dough layering, turn the stove knob to low and allow cooking for an additional five minutes. Check the sound of water simmering in the pot. If you hear it dimming down, or all gone, turn off the flame.
  • Let it cool for some time and then, garnish it using cucumber, carrot, eggs, and mints.

Idli Sambar

Indian food Idli Sambar
Idli Sambar

Idli and sambar complete each other. Sambar is basically a hot and spicy lentil soup that covers most of the masalas/spices that southern region is loaded with.

Although Idli Sambar, for its tasteful diet, has gained a significant name in the northern part, the taste that homemade masalas create in southern India, beats all practices no matter how hard north Indians try.

Unlike all Indian foods which rely largely on frying in oil, Idli and Sambar are mostly boiled and include a lot of veggies which combine together to surge full the taste and nutrition.

Cooking Time: 1 hr | Calorie: 310 per 1 cup sambar and 3 idli

Key ingredients needed for Idli

  • 2 cup Rice
  • ½ cup Urad Dal (Black Gram)
  • ½ Tbsp Fenugreek Seeds
  • Water as required, or 2-3 cup
  • Salt as per taste

Step-by-step guide

  • Soak rice in water for 5 hours
  • In a separate bowl, soak black gram and fenugreek seeds in water for 5 hours.
  • Create a paste by grinding black gram and fenugreek seeds, using some fresh water.
  • Create rice paste using the above process.
  • Mix both the paste and add a little rock salt to it.
  • Expose the idli batter to the sun, for good fermentation.
  • Next day, using cotton, apply a layering of oil on the idli stand and then, lay idli batter on it.
  • In an idli cooker, use steam to cook idli batter.
  • Use a wooden stick to check whether idli has swelled or not.
  • Drizzle a little water over it and capsize the idli stand, to take out idli.

Key ingredients required for Sambar

Prime essentials:

  • 4 medium-sized Tomatoes
  • Coconut
  • 250g onions
  • 100g black gram (roasted)


  • 2 Tbsp Fennel
  • 3 Cloves
  • 3 Cinnamon
  • 2 Tbsp Coriander leaves
  • 2 Tbsp Turmeric Powder
  • 1 Tbsp Red chili powder
  • 1 Tbsp sambar powder
  • ½ Tbsp mustard seeds

Other essentials

  • 2 Tbsp curry leaves
  • 1 Tbsp salt
  • 3-4 Tbsp Oil (Groundnut)
  • Water as required (2-3 cup)

Step-by-step guide

  • Pour finely chopped onions and tomatoes in a pan and over a medium flame, use some oil to saute it well.
  • Allow it to cool and then grind the mixture of both, to make a paste.
  • In another pan, without using oil, roast spices like cloves, cinnamon, and fennel.
  • Once the spices roast well, take a grinder and put all the spices, along with coconut and roasted black gram, and grind them all, to make a paste.
  • Place a pan on flame and using oil, saute mustard seeds, curry leaves, and onion and tomato paste.
  • Further, mix turmeric powder, sambar powder, salt, and red chilly powder in it, and saute again for 2 minutes.
  • Add the paste prepared in 4th step and then, saute again.
  • Pour water and boil for 5 minutes, to create a masala-rich gravy.
  • Garnish with coriander leaves.

Butter Chicken

Indian cuisine Butter chicken
Butter chicken (credit: stu_spivack )

Believe it or not, but this Punjabi dish has spread all around India, gaining a prominent place in most Indian kitchens. Also called Murgh Makhani, it first originated in the early 20th century, to soften the leftover tandoori chicken with tomatoes, butter, and cream. In India, still bone-in chicken is in wide trend because of the flavor preference; in abroad, boneless chicken is commonly used. It’s a very easy recipe to cook as it doesn’t require more efforts and cook within 30 minutes.

Cooking time: 30 minutes | Calorie: 400 per 5 ounce

Key Ingredients needed for butter chicken

Prime Essentials

  • 1 pound boneless, or with bone, chicken thighs
  • 600 grams stewed tomatoes
  • Salt as per taste
  • 2 sliced onions (medium size)


  • 4 grated garlic cloves
  • 1 Tbsp grated ginger
  • 1 cinnamon stick
  • 1 whole clove
  • 2 Tbsp fenugreek seeds
  • 1 Tbsp garam masala
  • ½ Tbsp turmeric powder
  • 5 green cardamom pods
  • 1 Tbsp paprika
  • 2 hot variety chiles

Other essentials

  • ½ cup yogurt
  • ½ cup butter
  • ½ cup heavy cream

Step-by-step guide

  • Mix almonds, yogurt, garlic, lemon juice, and spices in a bowl, and stir till all the ingredients fuse well.
  • Add chicken to it and use your hand to coat the chicken all around with the gravy prepared in the previous step. Marinate for an hour or two or overnight.
  • Take a thick-layered pot and heat vegetable oil or ghee over medium flame. Put onion into the pot and cook for about 5-7 minutes until onion turns soft and translucent.
  • Further, add garlic and ginger to it and cook for one more minute.
  • Pour the marinated chicken and marinade into the pot. Simmer the chicken until it gets a white appearance.
  • Add tomato puree and black cardamom pod. Turn the knob to medium and cover the pot with a lid and simmer the chicken for an additional 25 minutes, with regular stirring.
  • Add butter and cream and keep stirring until both dissolves entirely.
  • Add salt as per your taste and garnish with some extra cream and chopped cilantro.

The tremendous power of Indian cuisine: Overview of constitution & Health Aspect

The very first thought that conjures you up about Indian food it is hot, spicy, unhealthy, fatty, greasy, and gas-causing features.

Is it so? No.

fresh vegetables in Indian cuisine
Fresh vegetables, an essential part of the Indian cuisine

Myth busted! Set free the perspective that’s biased and globally accepted. From now, the thing that should emerge in your mind is that Indian foods are nourishing, wholesome, healthy, and full of spices, which have plenty of health benefits and healing powers.

No, don’t listen to those crackpots who have framed such false and fabricated theories about what this vast peninsula offers.

Had they been true, Indians would have extinct. But, are they? They’re over a billion and second most populous land after China.

The famous Indian dish: thali
The famous Indian dish: thali

The health aspect is such a trait that goes unnoticed by all and so, it’s important to be aware of what actually Indian foods offer.

An array of fresh vegetables and fruits fuse in together to form a variety of dish.

These ingredients are cooked using traditional practices that help to retain their freshness and nutrients, unlike those processes—followed in developed countries—that pull the life out of vegetables. Indians are close to nature and so does the organic method of farming reflect in their cuisine.

  • Indians don’t rely on preservatives. They always use fresh ingredients and prepare food from scratch. Unlike the trend of packaged foods that has engulfed almost all developed countries, Indians stick to the leeward side where there is still hope for consuming foods that come directly out of the soil. Majority of the population is farmers, so less comes the situation when they opt for packaged foods.
  • Indians take a balanced diet as they still practice a ‘thali’ system in which a variety of dishes are prepared for lunch and dinner time. In a single thali serve, they get all the major nutrients, such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and fibers. The spices used in foods are laced with medicinal powers. The royal families used to have Chappan Bhog (fifty-six dishes) at one time, which is still in fashion in upper classes.

Best Indian vegan dishes

Do you also support the vegan movement and prefer to switch to food prepared without the aid of animal products? India, the country with the core of diversity,  is a storehouse of innumerable vegan Indian dishes prepared without the use of animal products. We bring you some of the popular vegan dishes that add equal nutrition and give astonishing savor to your tongue in comparison to the non-vegan dishes. Have a brief insight into some of the popular vegan Indian dishes:

Rajma- chawal

Super healthy Indian vegan food

Rajma is one of the most popular Indian vegan dishes made from red Kidney beans. Eaten with bread/chapati or cooked rice, it is a mouth-watering dish loved by folks of all ages. The cooking time is usually 45 minutes, but you need to soak the rajma for a few hours before boiling it for around 20 minutes. After successfully boiling, add the red kidney beans in a gravy of onion, tomato and popular Indian spices like turmeric, dry coriander, salt, red chilli, heeng, etc. It is a highly nutritious dish rich in dietary fibers and protein, with zero cholesterol.

Baingan ka Bharta

baingan ka bharta
baingan ka bharta, tasty

Baingan Bharta is a grilled eggplant curry requiring preparation time of 30 minutes. This simple dish is prepared in a bit spice tang and served with Indian fried wheat flour or parantha. The eggplants may be grilled in microwaves, on gas stoves directly, or in Indian traditional tandoors. The grilled mash of the eggplant is then mixed in the gravy of onion, tomato, and other hot typical Indian spices. Garam masala is the special spice added in Bharta in last, along with a few chopped leaves of coriander for garnishing. This tempting spicy dish is rich in fats and carbohydrates and gives almost 83% calories to your soma.    

Vegetable Pakora

vegetable pakora
vegetable pakora, one of the best Indian food dishes

The list of Indian vegan snacks is incomplete without Pakoras. They are elementarily the Indian squander prepared from the chickpea flour and vegetables like cabbage, potato, onion, bell peppers, etc. All you need is to make a paste of besan added with salt, coriander powder, and red chili powder as per taste. Deep fry the dipped sliced vegetables into oil till it gets a little brown.  Serve them hot with coriander, tomato, or mint chutney. These are popular breakfast and evening snacks of Indians.

Aloo Kachauri and Sabji

Aloo Kachauri and Sabji Bedmi or kachauri is a deep-fried Indian bread stuffed with urad dal or mashed boiled potato. This fat-and-carbohydrate rich bread is served with potato and tomato curry, that complements each other exceptionally well. This is one of the popular foods offered to guests in north India and is a popular cuisine cooked during festivals.


Dhokla It is a dish from the land of Gujarat. Dhokla is a besan or chickpea flour-based snack having a preparation time of 30 minutes. All you need is to make the batter of besan and add a bit of baking powder and salt in it. Leave it for 5-10 minutes and then pour the batter either in a dhokla-making steaming utensil or a microwave. Let it steam for 10-15 minutes, at a low gas flame.  Post dhokla, pour the tadaka of mustard seeds, curry leaves, and some green chili in sugar added water and sprinkle it all over the dish. Serve it with tamarind or green coriander chutney.

India Street food

A foreigner’s visit to India does not complete until he/she tries his/her hand on street foods of India, spread across cities of all sizes and order. If anything that addresses a distinct flavor, appearance, and perspective about the making of Indian cuisine is its fast food served in the open streets. It doesn’t matter how health conscious one is—without doubt, he/she would yield before the finger-licking, mouth-watering, and taste bud-lingering effect of the following street foods, asking for once more, one more.

Pani Puri

Literally, Pani means water, and puris are fried hollow dough balls. Pani puri is popular all across India and there is not a single state (province) where you won’t locate ‘thelawalas’ (roadside stalls), with puris stored inside a glass-closed structure.

Indian street food Pani Puri
Pani Puri, you won’t believe how many you can eat

It has all three tastes—teekha (spicy), khatta (sour), and meetha (sweet)—assembled in it. Crisp fried dough balls stuffed with potato, sprouts, sweet chutney, and/or spicy tangy water make pani puri such a delicious street food that would turn you into a fan of it from the very first attempt.

Chhole Bhature

Chole Bhature is an exotic Punjabi dish, which has found its place in houses, restaurants, and street vendors. It’s often eaten as breakfast and gets a complete package appearance when accompanied by onions, green chutney, radish, carrot pickle, achar, lemon, and cucumber.

Indian cuisine Chhole Bhature
Chhole Bhature served with Boondhi Raita on a roadside stall (credit: SpeedWeed )

Chole Bhature is a combination of chickpeas, cooked in spicy masala; and bhatura—a fluffy, round maida flour bread (soft wheat) deep fried in refined oil. The crispy layering of Bhature, dipped in spice-packed chole, yields a completely unique flavor.

Masala Dosa

With its origin in Udupi, Karnataka, the love for masala dosa is seen all over the country, mainly in the southern region. Masala dosa is a popular variety of dosa.

Most people prefer to eat it as it’s low in calorie and extremely appetizing. For its light effect on the stomach, people love to have it in breakfast, lunch, and even dinner. It’s a fermented crepe stuffed with potatoes, fried onions, and spices.

Indian cuisine Masala Dosa
Masala Dosa, crispy and tasty

Masala dosa is made using rice, potato, onions, tomato (optional), lentils, curry leaves, and methi. To enhance its effect on the tongue, it’s served with sambar and chutney made of coconut.


Samosa is an all-time favorite tea time snack in India. Found in various shapes like a triangular, cone, and half-moon, this is basically a deep-fried pocket of wheat, or maida, dough stuffed with potato, spices, peas, onions, and lentils.

Indian street food Samosa
Samosa, you will get addicted…

It’s often accompanied by tomato sauce and/or green chutney, to elevate its flavor. Spreading across the Indian border, it has become widely known in Africa, China, Southeast Asia, and the Mediterranean. It fits best for all sorts of people, in terms of spice bearing capacity. It’s such a dish that’s too common in the streets and common Indian kitchens.


Chaat has many varieties—the main among them are papdi chaat, bhelpuri, aloo, samosa chaat, tikki chaat, cheela, and ragda pattice.

Out of many of its kind, Papdi, samosa, and Tikki chaat are found everywhere. It originated in Uttar Pradesh, India; however, the uncontrolled taste that this savory snack delivers, couldn’t stop from spreading to Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh.

Indian culture food Dahi Bhalla Chaat
Dahi Bhalla Chaat (credit: Nitin Badhwar)

The main ingredients are boiled potato, and/or Chhole, curd, onion, Aloo Bhujia, mint chutney, chili, Papdi, and tamarind sauce, which collectively spice up to make this dish so addictive that you would like to have it on a weekly basis.

29 Of the Indian States and Its typical dishes

Andhra Pradesh

Staple Food: Rice and Sambar

Top Dishes: Andhra Chicken Biryani, Pulihora, Chepa Pulusu, Curd Rice, Medu Vada, Uppindi

Indian food culture Pulihora
Typical South Indian dish. (Credit: JVRKPRASAD)

Famous Sweets & Desserts: Qubani ka meetha, Kajjikayalu, Ariselu, Pootharekulu Kunda

Arunachal Pradesh

Staple Food: Rice along with fish

Top Dishes: Daal and eggs, Panchforan Tarkari, Bamboo Shoot, Lukter

Indian food culture Bamboo shot
Bamboo shoot (credit: Hosaki-Menma)

Famous Sweet & Desserts: Khapse (Zhero), Momo


Top Dishes: Bai, Koat Pitha, Mizo vawksa, Chhum Han, Bamboo shoot fry

Famous Sweet: Koat Pitha, Chaangban Leh Kurtai


Top Dishes: Dried Pork, Boiled Vegetables, Bamboo steamed fish, Crab chili sauce

Famous Sweet: Koat Pitha, Nap Naang


Top Dishes: Phagshapa, Sael Roti, Kinema, Gundruk and Sinki, Niguru with Churpi

Famous Sweet: Sael Roti

West Bengal

Top Dishes: Tangra macher jhol, Luchi, Mochar Ghonto, Potol’er dolma, Bhetki machh’er paturi

Famous Sweet: Sandesh, Aam pora Shorbot,


Top Dishes: Khaar, Duck meat curry, Massor Tenga, Paro Manxho, Omita Khar, Dhekia xaak

Famous Sweet: Narikol’ or Ladoo


Top Dishes: Litti Chokha, Mutton Kebabs, Kadhi badi, Daal puri, Paratha, Saag, Khichdi

Famous Sweet: Naivedyam, Pedakiya, Chana ghugni, Laai


Top Dishes: Pittha, Rugra, Dhuska, Chilka Roti, Kanda ki Sabzi, Mahua Masala, Bamboo shoots

Famous Sweet:Malpua, Til Barfi, Mitha khaja, Thekua

Uttar Pradesh

Top Dishes: Mutton Kofta, Kakori Kebab, Aloo Rasedaar, Dum Aloo, Baigan Kaloojee, Dahiwale Aloo, Daal Kachori

Famous Sweet: Pedha, Petha, Malpua, Rasmalai, Sheer Khurma


Top Dishes: Phaanu, Kafuli, Kandalee ka saag, Dubuk Dubke, Chudkaani, Baadi, Garhwal ka Fannah

Famous Sweet: Jhangora ki Kheer, Gulgula, Arsa, Singori


Top Dishes: Sarson ka Saag aur makki ki roti, Tandoori Chicken, Machchli Amritsari, Butter Chicken, Rajma Chawal

Famous Sweet: Shakkar para, Karma Prashad, Pinni


Top Dishes: Besan masala roti, Hara dhania cholia, Dahi vada, Bajra Khichdi, Kadhi pakora,

Famous Sweet: Malpua, Alsi ki pinni, Kheer

Jammu & Kashmir

Top Dishes: Dum Aloo, Kashmiri Pulao, Rogan Josh, Matschgand, Lyodur Tschaman

Famous Sweet: Shufta

Himachal Pradesh

Top Dishes: Madra, Dhaam, Tudkiya Bhath, Chha gosht, Siddu, Kullu Trout Fish, Babru

Famous Sweets: Babroo


Top Dishes: Misal Pav, Pithla Bhakri, Vada pav, Puran Poli, Val usal, Chicken Kolhapuri, Upasachi Kachori, Kande pohe

Famous Sweet: Shrikhand, Modak, Shankarpali


Top Dishes: Idiyappam with Curry, Pattu and Kadala Curry, Ela Sadya, Idli Samber, Nadan Kozhi Varuthathu, Sadhya, Malabar Biryani

Famous Sweet: Payasam


Top Dishes: Goan Prawn Curry, Rava Fried Fish, Goan Squid Fry, Pork Vindaloo, Fonna Kadi, Mussel Rawa Fry, Shark Ambot Tik

Famous Sweet: Bebinca, Goan Nevri, Bolinhas, Kulkul

Tamil Nadu

Top Dishes: Idli, Sambar, Dosa, Uttapam, Banana Bonda, Prawns Kuzhambu, Urlai Roast, Chicken Chettinad, Coconut Chutney

Famous Sweet: Arisi Thengai Payasam, Pongal


Top Dishes: Neer Dosa, Mysore Masala Dosa, Coorg Pandi Curry, Bisi Bele Bath, Mangalorean Biryani, Sagu, Chow Chow Bhath

Famous Sweet: Mysore Pak, Haalbai, Rava Kesari, Pori Urundai, Chiroti

Madhya Pradesh

Top Dishes: Poha, Daal Bafla, Bhopali Gosht, Korma, Chakki ki Shak, Biryani Pilaf, Bhutte Ka Kees, Papad ki Sabzi

Famous Sweet: Malpua, Kesari Jalebi, Mawa Bati


Top Dishes: Dal Bati Churma, Mohan Maas, Gatte ki Khichdi, Boondi Raita, Methi Bajra Poori, Pyaaz Kachori, Laal Maas, Kadhi

Famous Sweet: Dil Khushal, Churma Ladoo, Badam ka halwa, Mawa Kachori, Gujia, Ghevar, Kalakand


Top Dishes: Khandvi, Undhiyu, Gujarati Kadhi, Dhokla, Handvo, Patra, Thepla, Muthiya

Famous Sweet: Shrikhand, Mohanthal, Adadiya, Monthar, Maisub, Shiro, Doodhpak


Top Dishes: Chungdi Malai, Macha Ghanta, Kanika, Santula, Water Rice-Phakhala Bhata, Aloo Dum Dhaibara, Mutton Mudhi, Dhenkanal Bara

Famous Sweet: Rasabadi, Chhena Poda, Rasgulla, Chenna Jhillipi


Top Dishes: Sarva Pindi, Pachi Pulusu, Golichina Mmsam, Hyderabadi Biryani, Polelu, Sakinalu, Gongura Chutney

Famous Sweet: Malidalu, Garijalu, Qubani ka Meetha, Kobbari Pappu Payasam, Garijalu


Top Dishes: Aamat, Chila, Bhajia, Sabudana ki Khichdi, Bara Faraa, Bafauri, Kadhi Pakoda, Kusli

Famous Sweet: Tilgur, Khurma, Moong Dal Halwa, Lavang Lata


Top Dishes: Chamthong, Eromba, Paaknam, Alu Kngmet, Kangshoi, Nga-Thongba

Famous Sweet: Chakhao Kheer


Top Dishes:  Mui Parok, Kasoi Bwtwi, Gudok, Mosdeng, Serma, Bhangui, Wahai Mosdeng

Famous Sweet: Awan Bangwi


Top Dishes: Nakham Bitchi, Doh-Neiiong, Pudoh, Sakin Gata, Dohkhlieh, Jadoh, Zunka Bhakar, Pumaloi, Momo

Famous Sweet: Pukhlein

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